In the previous rotulus, we delved into the dispersion of the Nation of Israel. Shalmaneser the Assyrian besieged the 10 Northern kingdoms while Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian—the 2 Southern kingdoms. The theme, “God’s endtime dealings with Israel” is to walk Israel through history and convey by the scriptures’ expectations for Israel at this end of time.

God is the God of restoration. The psalmist said God should not cast off Israel forever (Psalms 44:23) and as such God restored Israel—though there is a yet another restoration to the Nation of Israel in the future.

We must note that after the Babylonian captivity, the returned exiles resumed the name Israel as the designation of their Nation. The word Jew and Israel are often used synonymously, especially after the scattering.

2nd Temple

We must recall that the Nation of Israel was divided before the dispersion and in history, only the Southern kingdom was restored. In the days of Jesus, the Samaritan woman points to the fact that the real Israelites—the Northern kingdoms never returned (John 4 cf 2 Kings 17:23-24, Ezra 4)

2. In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.

—Daniel 9:2

And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.

—Jeremiah 25:11

After that seventy years were accomplished in the desolations of Jerusalem. God began the process of restoring Israel to her homeland. What we must understand is that God can never have dealings with Israel outside their homeland and this applies to the Gentiles as well—God would never deal with the Gentiles outside His word. So the Southern kingdom was restored, the Temple and city rebuilt, and they dwelt in the land until the first advent of the Messiah.

Navigate to the next rotulus: “Second Phase of Dispersion